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Study species

The study species include seven social parasites of ants and three mutualistic butterflies together with the main foodplant(s), ants and parasitoids with which they directly interact.

Summary of properties of main study species in CLIMIT

Study species

Foodplant

Ant association

Local races

Parasitoid

Polyommatus coridon (Lepidoptera)

100% phytophagous

Hippocrepis comosa

Mutualist with Lasius, Myrmica in late instars

Unspecific across Europe

Unspecific

P. bellargus (Lepidoptera)

100% phytophagous

Hippocrepis comosa

Mutualist with Lasius, Myrmica in late instars

Unspecific across Europe

Unspecific

Plebejus argus (Lepidoptera)

100% phytophagous

Multiphagous

Obligate mutualist with Lasius niger in all stages

Constant across Europe

3 near-specific spp

Maculinea arion (Lepidoptera)

2% food: Thymus (cool sites) Origanum: (warm)

last instar obligate predatory social parasite of M. sabuleti

Possible ant host shift in E Europe

Neotypus coreensis

Maculinea teleius (Lepidoptera)

5% Sanguisorba officinalis

last instar obligate predatory social parasite of M. scabrinodis

Possible ant host shift in E Europe

N. pusillus? cryptic spp?

Maculinea nausithous (Lepidoptera)

2% Sanguisorba officinalis

last instar obligate predatory social parasite of M. rubra

Constant across Europe

N. pusillus

2 races

Maculinea alcon (Lepidoptera)

2% Gentiana pneumonanthe

last instar obligate cuckoo social parasite: M. rubra, M. ruginodis or M. scabrinodis

3 host shifts in N.W. Europe

Ichneumon eumerus

Maculinea rebeli (Lepidoptera)

2% Gentiana cruciata

last instar obligate cuckoo social parasite of M. schencki, M. sabuleti or M. sulcinodis

3 host shifts across central Europe

I. eumerus probable new cryptic spp

Microdon mutabilis

(Diptera)

none

100% predatory social parasite of Formica lemani in egg-pupal stages

colony adapted to individual or local host populations

Unknown

Microdon myrmicae

(Diptera)

none

100% social parasite of Myrmica scabrinodis in egg-pupal stages

Unknown in theory as M. mutabilis

Unknown



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